An analysis of anterior scleral shape and its role in the design and fitting of scleral contact lenses

Die mit dem Karl Amon Award 2015 ausgezeichnete Master Thesis von Markus Ritzmann hat es in das Journal "Contact Lens and Anterior Eye" geschafft. Der Artikel ist unter folgendem Link erhältlich:

Master Thesis plus Publication for Dissertation 

Herleitung der Abbildungsgleichungen zur Berechnung der Abbildungsfehler höherer Ordnung einer lokalen Wellenfront bei der Lichtbrechung

Esser, Gregor, E-Mail:

In dieser Master Thesis werden durch analytisches Differenzieren des vektoriellen Brechungsgesetzes die Abbildungsgleichungen zur Berechnung der Abbildungsfehler höherer Ordnung hergeleitet. Somit ist es erstmalig möglich, die Schnittweiten- und die Coddington-Gleichung (Abbildungsfehler 2. Ordnung) auf die Abbildungsfehler höherer Ordnung (Koma und sphärische Aberration) zu erweitern. Mit den hergeleiteten Gleichungen können nun die Abbildungsfehler höherer Ordnung sehr schnell analytisch berechnet werden.


Purpose. It is known from literature how to calculate the second order aberrations (power and astigmatism) of a local wavefront after the refraction at a given surface. In the case of orthogonal incidence this relation is described by the “Vergence Equation” and in the case of oblique incidence by the Coddington Equation. It is the purpose of this study to extend the Generalized Coddington Equation to the case of Higher Order Aberrations (Coma and spherical Aberration).

Methods. The incoming wavefront, the refracting surface and the outgoing wavefront are each described by power series expansions. The coefficients of the power series of the incoming wavefront and the refracting surface are each determined by the local aberrations. With the directional derivatives of the incoming wavefront and the refracting surface its normal vectors are calculated. The normal vector of the outgoing wavefront is calculated from the normal vectors of the incoming wavefront and the refracting surface by the vectorial refractive law. The coefficients of the power series of the outgoing wavefront are determined by the derivatives of the normal of the outgoing wavefront. The local aberrations, in turn, are calculated from the coefficients of the power series of the outgoing wavefront.

Results. It was possible to derive analytically, also for oblique incidence, the dependency of the local aberrations of the outgoing wavefront on the aberrations of the incoming wavefront and the refracting surface. The connection and the interaction of the aberrations of the refracting surface and the incoming wavefront with the outgoing wavefront are determined. Thus it was possible to extend both the Vergence Equation and the Generalized Coddington Equation to Higher Order Aberrations. The outcome in the case of no incidence and only one aberration of the same order by the incoming wavefront and the refraction surface, e.g. spherical aberration SphAber, is equivalent to the Vergence Equation S’ = S + D with SphAber’ = SphAber + SphAberS.

With the formulas derived in this work, it is now possible to calculate the local Higher Order Aberrations of the outgoing wavefront directly in an analytical way from the aberrations of the incoming wavefront and the refracting surface.

Keywords: wavefront · Higher Order Aberration · Coddington Equation · Coma · spherical Aberration

Master Thesis: Examples for Download 

FoCoSi Follicular-like Conjunctivitis associated with Siliconhydrogels 

Wyss, Michael

The purpose of this study is to prescribe follicular-like conjunctivitis associated with Siliconhydrogels (FoCoSi) in silicone hydrogel contact lens wearers as a novel subtype of the well prescribed contact lens induced papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC).

Download the thesis here:

Measurement of Dynamic Visual Acuity with Augmenting Landolt Rings

Nataša Vujko Muždalo

The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of measured visual acuity (VA) both static and dynamic obtained with static and dynamic measuring tests, as well as, response time to visual stimulus and analysis of its influence on dynamic visualacuity. The aim was to compare the results gathered for the three age groups and analyze the possible differences.

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Clinical Effect of Tear Layer Thickness on Corneal Edema During Scleral Lens Wear

Christiane Arlt

Purpose: Although the frequency in which practitioners are fitting scleral contact lenses is increasing, the recommendation for proper tear layer depth
(thickness) varies amongst experts. The main goal of this paper is to clinically verify the effect of varying tear layer depths on induced corneal edema during
lens wear.

Download the thesis here:

TEMPUS IV Sixth Call program: Life Long Learning in Applied Sciences (LLAF)

How to learn lifelong learning

Image 678 151014 llaf 01

Oct 19, 2015 As part of the Life Long Learning in Applied Fields (LLAF) project on lifelong learning funded by the EU in the TEMPUS programme, the part-time optometry Master's programme in Vision Science and Business and the International Office of the University of Applied Sciences in Aalen hosted the third meeting of the international consortium consisting of 16 universities and non-governmental organisations from a total of eight nations.

LLAF is a unique and innovative project that combines the capacity-building of higher education institutions in the context of international cooperation with a curriculum reform for lifelong learning in a variety of applied fields such as medicine, speech therapy and audiology, optometry, education, photography, communication and information technology. The European and Israeli members of the consortium are universities and educational institutions which have set themselves the goal of further developing lifelong learning by applying new teaching and learning approaches such as knowledge-based practice and knowledge-based learning (EBP & EBL) or team-oriented learning (TBL) and New Learning Environments (NLE), which are already being implemented by some of the participating EU expert universities in the classroom.

LLAF is a TEMPUS project that also promotes cooperation between Israeli and EU universities. The aim of this project is therefore to bring together the current state of the art of research and the relevant experience in lifelong learning in this project and to apply it in various areas, such as the Aalen University of Applied Sciences in the field of ophthalmology and optometry.

In this project, various generic modules are being developed in terms of knowledge acquisition, knowledge transfer (in teams) and personality development, which is becoming increasingly important in professional life. These modules will be applied in different fields of study in the life sciences and health sciences, where they will be integrated into the curriculum.

As part of the meeting, the project participants from the EU universities and seven participating Israeli universities visited the memorial and meeting place of the former synagogue in Oberdorf, which was established in 1997 as a museum on the history of the Jewish population in the Eastern Albert-County. There they were given a guided tour by Felix Sutschek, managing director of the sponsoring association former synagogue Oberdorf e. V., to whom all visitors were deeply moved by his comments on the history of the synagogue and for his work and that of the association as a whole.

The current meeting of the consortium with a total of 28 participants focused on the preparation of pilot sub-projects, which will be carried out in the next step of the project in Israel. The aim was to prepare the best ways of implementing and evaluating these pilot projects. The project is being led by Prof. Dr. Anna Nagl and Prof. Dr. h. c. at the University of Applied Sciences in Aalen, Germany. Dietmar Kümmel with the active support of the International Office with its head Pascal Cromm and his entire team. Further information about the project is available under the link:



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Dean of Studies:
Prof. Dr. Anna Nagl